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Durham e-Theses
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Small-scale renewable energy systems are becoming increasingly popular due to soaring fuel prices and due to technological advancements which reduce the cost of manufacturing. Solar and wind energies, among other renewable energy sources, are the most available ones globally. The hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and wind power system has a higher capability to deliver continuous power with reduced energy storage requirements and therefore results in better utilization of power conversion and control equipment than either of the individual sources. Power conditioning units (p.c.u.) for such small-scale hybrid PV-wind generation systems have been proposed in this study. The system was connected to the grid, but it could also operate in standalone mode if the grid was unavailable. The system contains a local controller for every energy source and the grid inverter. Besides, it contains the supervisory controller.
For the wind generator side, small-scale vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are attractive due to their ability to capture wind from different directions without using a yaw. One difficulty with VAWTs is to prevent over-speeding and component over-loading at excessive wind velocities. The proposed local controller for the wind generator is based on the current and voltage measured on the dc side of the rectifier connected to the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control is provided in normal operation under the rated speed using a dc/dc boost converter. For high wind velocities, the suggested local controller controls the electric power in order to operate the turbine in the stall region. This high wind velocity control strategy attenuates the stress in the system while it smoothes the power generated. It is shown that the controller is able to stabilize the nonlinear system using an adaptive current feedback loop. Simulation and experimental results are presented.
The PV generator side controller is designed to work in systems with multiple energy sources, such as those studied in this thesis. One of the most widely used methods to maximize the output PV power is the hill climbing technique. This study gives guidelines for designing both the perturbation magnitude and the time interval between consecutive perturbations for such a technique. These guidelines would improve the maximum power point tracking efficiency. According to these guidelines, a variable step MPPT algorithm with reduced power mode is designed and applied to the system. The algorithm is validated by simulation and experimental results.
A single phase H-bridge inverter is proposed to supply the load and to connect the grid. Generally, a current controller injects active power with a controlled power factor and constant dc link voltage in the grid connected mode. However, in the standalone mode, it injects active power with constant ac output voltage and a power factor which depends on the load. The current controller for both modes is based on a newly developed peak current control (p.c.c.) with selective harmonic elimination. A design procedure has been proposed for the controller. Then, the method was demonstrated by simulation. The problem of the dc current injection to the grid has been investigated for such inverters. The causes of dc current injection are analyzed, and a measurement circuit is then proposed to control the inverter for dc current injection elimination. Characteristics of the proposed method are demonstrated, using simulation and experimental results.
At the final stage of the study, a supervisory controller is demonstrated, which manages the different operating states of the system during starting, grid-connected and standalone modes. The operating states, designed for every mode, have been defined in such a hybrid model to allow stability and smooth transition between these states. The supervisory controller switches the system between the different modes and states according to the availability of the utility grid, renewable energy generators, the state of charge (SOC) of energy storage batteries, and the load. The p.c.u. including the supervisory controller has been verified in the different modes and states by simulation.

Item Type:Thesis (Doctoral)
Award:Doctor of Philosophy
Keywords:Small-scale wind photovoltaic MPPT VAWT soft stalling Matlab plecs Dspase supervisory controller inverter
Faculty and Department:Faculty of Science > Engineering and Computing Science, School of (2008-2017)
Thesis Date:2011
Copyright:Copyright of this thesis is held by the author
Deposited On:17 Jan 2011 10:06

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