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Durham e-Theses
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Fabrication Optimisation of Metal-Oxide-Metal Diodes

DODD, LINZI,EMMA (2014) Fabrication Optimisation of Metal-Oxide-Metal Diodes. Doctoral thesis, Durham University.

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Abstract

This thesis is based on the design, research and development of devices required to successfully recover waste heat and convert it into electrical power through the use of Microsystems Technology. This takes place using optical nano-antennas, in the same way a radio antenna picks up a radio station. The main aim of this project is the rectification of this signal into a useful DC voltage. Here we have used high frequency metal-oxide-metal (MOM) diodes, which involve the use of two dissimilar metals separated by a native oxide.
In order to make successful MOM diodes, the following must be considered: maximise the work function difference between the metals for asymmetry in I-V characteristics, produce a uniform oxide layer that is sufficiently thin (a few nm) for electron tunnelling to occur and reduce the diode size to sub-micron dimensions to increase the cut-off frequency. Currently the diodes consist of titanium, titanium oxide and platinum, which provides a high enough work function difference that the I-V characteristics show significant asymmetry and figure of merit values are among the best published. It has been found, using ToFSIMS and TEM analysis of the oxide, that the thickness of the oxide can be controlled between 1 nm and 7 nm using RIE etching and subsequent oxygen plasma regrowth. Different oxides have been fabricated with different stoichiometries depending on the process used. Furnace oxidation grows a complex oxide in the range 6.9 to 7.6 nm thick. By contrast a more simple oxide can be produced using a controlled reactive ion etch and subsequent plasma oxidation, with thicknesses in the range 1 to 6 nm.
The final significant issue involves the cross-sectional area of the diodes, which also determines their cut-off frequency. Extrapolation of existing diode results suggests that, if made sufficiently small, they would function at high enough frequencies for rectification of radiation in the terahertz regime. Furthermore, phase shift lithography has been used to demonstrate 200 to 400nm lines in diode features, with alternative possible high scale processes discussed for future fabrication.

Item Type:Thesis (Doctoral)
Award:Doctor of Philosophy
Keywords:MOM; diode; metal; oxide; furnace; plasma; RIE; ToFSIMS; TEM; thin film; rectification; terahertz; infrared; radiation; titanium; platinum; phase shift lithography;
Faculty and Department:Faculty of Science > Engineering and Computing Science, School of
Thesis Date:2014
Copyright:Copyright of this thesis is held by the author
Deposited On:11 Feb 2014 11:10

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