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Durham e-Theses
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Through-The-Wall Detection Using Ultra Wide Band Frequency Modulated Interrupted Continuous Wave Signals

FIORANELLI, FRANCESCO (2013) Through-The-Wall Detection Using Ultra Wide Band Frequency Modulated Interrupted Continuous Wave Signals. Doctoral thesis, Durham University.

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Abstract

Through-The-Wall-Detection (TTWD) techniques can improve the situational awareness of police and soldiers, and support first responders in search and rescue operations. A variety of systems for TTWD based on different waveforms have been
developed and presented in the literature, e.g. radar systems based on pulses, noise or pseudo-noise waveforms, and frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) or stepped frequency continuous wave (SFCW) waveforms. Ultra wide band signals are normally used as they provide suitable resolution to discriminate different targets.
A common problem for active radar systems for TTWD is the strong backscattered signal from the air-wall interface. This undesired signal can overshadow the reflections from actual targets, especially those with low radar cross section like human beings, and limit the dynamic range at the receiver, which could be saturated and blocked.
Although several techniques have been developed to address this problem, frequency modulated interrupted continuous wave (FMICW) waveforms represent an interesting further approach to wall removal, which can be used as an alternative technique or combined with the existing ones. FMICW waveforms have been used in the past for ionospheric and ocean sensing radar systems, but their application to the wall removal problem in TTWD scenarios is novel.
The validation of the effectiveness of the proposed FMICW waveforms as wall removal technique is therefore the primary objective of this thesis, focusing on comparing simulated and experimental results using normal FMCW waveforms and using the proposed FMICW waveforms.
Initially, numerical simulations of realistic scenarios for TTWD have been run and FMICW waveforms have been successfully tested for different materials and internal structure of the wall separating the radar system and the targets. Then a radar system capable of generating FMICW waveforms has been designed and built to perform a measurement campaign in environments of the School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, Durham University. These tests aimed at the localization of stationary targets and at the detection of people behind walls. FMICW waveforms prove to be effective in removing/mitigating the undesired return caused by antenna cross-talk and wall reflections, thus enhancing the detection of targets.

Item Type:Thesis (Doctoral)
Award:Doctor of Philosophy
Faculty and Department:Faculty of Science > Engineering and Computing Science, School of
Thesis Date:2013
Copyright:Copyright of this thesis is held by the author
Deposited On:16 Dec 2013 12:22

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