GONZALEZ-SORIA, JAVIER (2012) Environmental Dynamics in Animal Waste Reclamation in the Scaling up of Livestock in Thailand. Masters thesis, Durham University.
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Thailand has seen a scaling up of pig production in numbers and structure. Nonetheless, in-house separation and
agricultural reclamation of pig solid waste are common practice. Waste reclamation is not taking place under small-scale farming and its environmental dynamics cannot be simply understood as a direct projection to larger scales. Scaling up has transformed the environmental significance of waste reclamation, including waste transfer from livestock to agriculture farmers. Waste transfer benefits pig farmers by trade and removal of waste by agriculture and aquaculture farmers and is key to the environmental dynamics of pig production. However, waste reclamation is not clearly defined as a management option in environmental frameworks. Waste management is mainly addressed as in-farm wastewater with limited attention to agro-environmental values of present practices. To recognise present practices in agro-environmental policies this thesis suggests a descriptive strategy focused on the transfer of waste. Such strategy would avoid command-and-control norms, avoid conflicting with an environmental culture centered in biogas technology and support knowledge transfer in agriculture. A focus on waste transfer from animal farms to agriculture [and aquaculture] plots is interpreted as off-site waste management. Off-site waste management calls for the inclusion of geographical variables beyond animal farms. This leads to an extended area of environmental influence (EAEI). Resulting environmental dynamics allows an interpretation of environment beyond resource in classical agricultural geography to a connotation where environment is also significant to agriculture and livestock because of the impacts from production. The recognition of reclamation practices and, consequently, of the integral environmental dynamics, and hence the connotation of environment, would contribute to connect livestock with agriculture through environmental geography. Intensive livestock is then defined as distribution and not location. Formalisation of reclamation practices entails the acknowledgment of agro-ecological cycles in livestock.
|Item Type:||Thesis (Masters)|
|Award:||Master of Science|
|Keywords:||Thailand livestock waste management, environment and agricultural geography, livestock agro-ecological cycles|
|Faculty and Department:||Faculty of Social Sciences and Health > Geography, Department of|
|Copyright:||Copyright of this thesis is held by the author|
|Deposited On:||10 Dec 2012 12:29|