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Durham e-Theses
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Peer-to-Peer Trading for Enhancing Electric Vehicle Charging with Renewable Energy

THOMAS, HUW,ROBERT (2023) Peer-to-Peer Trading for Enhancing Electric Vehicle Charging with Renewable Energy. Doctoral thesis, Durham University.



Electric vehicles (EVs) are rapidly increasing in popularity as greater attention is paid to climate change and decarbonisation, however the environmental benefits that EVs offer can only be fully realised through the use of renewable energy for their charging. Smart charging solutions are essential for managing the impact of EVs and increasing the utilisation of renewable energy, however, questions remain over whether low-voltage distribution networks can accommodate the upcoming increases in EV charging demand.

This thesis addresses both the challenge of increasing the utilisation of renewable energy for EV charging and also the importance of ensuring safe operation of low-voltage distribution networks with the integration of EV charging, distributed renewable energy generation, battery storage and vehicle-to-grid technologies.

Chapter 3 examines a scenario where houses equipped with solar photovoltaic panels and EV charge points endeavour to sell surplus solar energy and the use of their EV charge point to visiting EVs that require charging. A peer-to-peer auction is proposed, with a novel matching mechanism presented to increase the amount of EV charging completed using solar energy without any knowledge about future EV arrivals.

Chapter 4 presents a full peer-to-peer trading model of Network Impact Tokens and Phase Impact Tokens between houses in a low-voltage network. The Impact Tokens guarantee that all EV charging and renewable energy generation does not cause the network to exceed its voltage, current or transformer loading limits, while ensuring each house retains control over its energy usage, requiring no real-time monitoring or sensors in the network, and no privacy issues are encountered.

The Network and Phase Impact Token approach is further verified in Chapter 5, as it forms the basis of a novel approach for Distribution System Operators to evaluate the maximum EV hosting capacity of their networks in conjunction with renewable energy generation and battery storage. The maximum EV capacity results are verified by an alternate Optimisation approach and the maximum EV penetration is evaluated for a number of scenarios.

Item Type:Thesis (Doctoral)
Award:Doctor of Philosophy
Faculty and Department:Faculty of Science > Engineering, Department of
Thesis Date:2023
Copyright:Copyright of this thesis is held by the author
Deposited On:24 May 2023 14:29

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