DU VIVIER, ALICE,DIANA,CHARLOTTE (2014) Global evaluation of Os and Ca marine isotope stratigraphy and U-Pb geochronology of the OAE 2. Doctoral thesis, Durham University.
|PDF (ADC.DuVivier_PhD_2014) - Accepted Version|
Oceanic anoxic events occur in response to significant climate perturbations. This study focuses on the late Cretaceous OAE 2, which occurred across the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (CTB), ~93.9 Ma. Multiple isotope proxies have reviewed the implications of palaeocirculation, volcanism and climate change to assess the driving mechanism(s) associated with global anoxia. Utilising geochemistry and geochronology (Os, Ca and U-Pb) this study provides a greater understanding of palaeoclimate conditions and assesses the global extent of anoxia. Hitherto, analyses have focussed on sections in and around the proto-North Atlantic. Herein, high-resolution 187Os/188Os isotope stratigraphy from 8 globally representative sections is presented; Portland #1 core, Site 1260, Wunstorf, Vocontian Basin, Furlo, Site 530, Yezo Group, and Great Valley Sequence. The Re-Os system is sensitive to regional and global variation in seawater chemistry on the order of the residence time of Os due to ocean inputs: radiogenic Os from continental weathering and unradiogenic Os from hydrothermal inputs. The initial 187Os/188Os (Osi) profiles present a globally ubiquitous trend: radiogenic Os values are attenuated by unradiogenic Os for ~200 kyr, which then gradually return to radiogenic Os. Minor discrepancies illustrate the sensitivity of local water masses as a function of basin connectivity and global sea level; i.e., Portland, Great Valley Sequence and Yezo Group (temporally restricted basins) vs. Site 1260 and Site 530 (open ocean).
Furthermore, a temporal framework is developed from existing ages (from the Western Interior, USA) and new U-Pb zircon geochronology (Yezo Group, Japan) to quantify the duration of OAE 2 and volcanic activity at the Caribbean LIP. Age models are applied and support the revision of the stratigraphic position of the OAE 2 onset and the CTB in the Yezo Group. The integration of the Western Interior and Pacific geochronology quantitatively verifies that the OAE 2 was globally synchronous occurring at ~94.4 Ma ± 0.15 Ma.
In addition, marine δ44Ca records from 4 global OAE 2 sections are presented. The seawater mixing models reveal that δ44Ca values show no appreciable change to riverine or hydrothermal influx. Herein, I quantitatively demonstrate that fractionation is a parameter for δ44Ca isotopic variation at Portland and Pont d’Issole, which may be attributed to diagenetic reactions in the marl-rich lithology leading to site-specific fractionation. Therefore, marine δ44Ca profiles are different in each section as a function of varying fractionation factor. Ca isotope systematics are highly complex and so further work is crucial in order to develop our understanding of other parameters and to establish which, if any, is the most influential.
|Item Type:||Thesis (Doctoral)|
|Award:||Doctor of Philosophy|
|Keywords:||Isotope geochemistry, Late Cretaceous, Oceanic Anoxic Event 2, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeocirculation, Seawater chemistry, U-Pb geochronology.|
|Faculty and Department:||Faculty of Science > Earth Sciences, Department of|
|Copyright:||Copyright of this thesis is held by the author|
|Deposited On:||28 May 2014 12:31|