Horsham, Karen (1996) Natural killer cell evolution: cellular and molecular studies on Xenopus. Masters thesis, Durham University.
The presence of natural killer cells at lower evolutionary levels was investigated in the amphibian Xenopus laevis. Chromium release microcytotoxicity assays revealed that fresh splenocytes from early-thymectomised Xenopus displayed significant spontaneous cytotoxicity against allogeneic B(_3)B(_7) thymic tumor cell targets, unlike those from control Xenopus, suggesting that 'NK-like' activity is greater in thymectomised (T cell-deficient) animals. Addition of Concanavalin A- derived active supernatants to splenocytes from a thymectomised animal caused a significant increase in cytolytic activity, but had no effect on cells from a control animal. This finding of enhanced cytotoxicity was indicative of lymphokine-activated killing in Xenopus, and supported the concept that tumour cell lysis was mediated by NK - like cells. Attempts were made to enrich the splenocytes for natural killer cells through the selective depletion of other lymphocyte subsets, using the techniques of 'panning’ and 'magnetic bead' separation following monoclonal antibody labelling of cells. On comparison of the two techniques, it was found that both were able to deplete a splenocyte culture of B cells to the same extent, but that magnetic sorting produced far superior results for depletion of T cells. Optimum conditions for magnetic sorting were determined, and used to generate 'purified' populations which were tested for their cytolytic activity. Such preliminary investigations suggested that natural killer like activity in Xenopus is likely to be mediated by a 'non-T / non-B' lymphoid subset. Finally, preliminary work was undertaken into the development of 'phage display' technology for the generation of single chain Fy antibody fragments (ultimately against NK cell surface antigens). PGR amplification of the V(_H) and Kappa chains was attempted on RNA extracted (using various methods) from Carboxypeptidase Y-injected-, B(_3)B(_7)-injected-, and unimmunised mice. Following RNA extraction under optimum conditions. Kappa chains were successfully amplified from experimental spleens, but the heavy chains still require more development.
|Item Type:||Thesis (Masters)|
|Award:||Master of Science|
|Copyright:||Copyright of this thesis is held by the author|
|Deposited On:||24 Oct 2012 15:12|