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Durham e-Theses
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Evaporated organic films of tetrathiafulvalene and related materials

Kilitziraki, Maria (1996) Evaporated organic films of tetrathiafulvalene and related materials. Doctoral thesis, Durham University.



This thesis describes the design, construction and application of a novel vacuum system for the preparation of thin films of organic charge-transfer compounds. The method of thermal evaporation was used for four materials: tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and three of its derivatives, dimethyltetrathiafiilvalene (DiMe-TTF), trimethyltetrathiafiilvalene (TriMe-TTF) and bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafiilvalene (BEDT-TTF). The resulting thin layers were characterised using optical and electron microscopy, infrared/visible spectroscopy and dc conductivity measurements down to 77K.Thin films of tetrathiafulvalene, after doping with iodine, exhibited a maximum value of dc, in-plane room temperature conductivity σ of 8.0+2.4 S cm(^-1). Semiconducting behaviour was exhibited over the range 77-300 K with AE = 0.09+0.02 eV. The effect of the deposition rate on fihn morphology is reported. TTF iodide layers were also prepared by co- evaporating the two components. These films exhibited a maximum conductivity of 2.9+0.4 S cm(^-1) at room temperature. Again, semiconducting behaviour was noted over the range 77- 300 K with AE = 0.2+0.02 eV. A comparison of the optical, structural and electrical properties of the two types of films is made. DiMe-TTF and TriMe-TTF thin films were also successfully prepared. Doping with iodine resulted in in-plane, dc room temperature conductivities of 10(^-6) and 10(^-7) S cm(^-1), respectively. These values, together with data from optical spectroscopy, suggested that both salts were in the full charge-transfer state. (BEDT-TTF) iodide thin films were deposited by evaporating the organic compound and subsequent doping. Doped films possessed a dc, in-plane room temperature conductivity of 10(^-3) S cm(^-1).Annealing these layers at 60ºC resulted in an increase in conductivity with a final value of 1.6 S cm(^-1). Semiconducting behaviour over the range 77-300 K was exhibited by the annealed films (ΔE = 0.028 eV).Finally, thin film transistors, incorporating TTF and BEDT-TTF doped layers, were fabricated and their electrical characteristics measured.

Item Type:Thesis (Doctoral)
Award:Doctor of Philosophy
Thesis Date:1996
Copyright:Copyright of this thesis is held by the author
Deposited On:24 Oct 2012 15:07

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