Robotham, Ian A. (1997) Mechanistic studies of aromatic substitutions with aniline and phenoxide nucleophiles. Doctoral thesis, Durham University.
Kinetic studies are reported of the reactions of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene with aniline in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). In the presence of buffers containing 1,4- diazabicyclo(2.2.2)octane, (Dabco), and its acid salt, DabcoH(^+), the anilide σ-adduct is formed. The reaction of ethyl 2,4,6-trinitrophenyI ether with aniline in DMSO containing Dabco occurs in two stages. The first gives σ-adduct intermediate on the substitution pathway, which has been identified spectroscopically. The second yields 2,4,6-trinitrodiphenyIamine, the substitution product. Kinetic studies show that proton transfer is rate-limiting both in the formation of the intermediate and in its subsequent acid-catalysed decomposition. Phenoxide is a considerably better leaving group than ethoxide and the substitution reactions of phenyl 2,4,6- trinitrophenyl ethers and phenyl 2,4-dinitronaphthyI ether with aniline in DMSO occur without the accumulation of intermediates. The kinetics indicate both uncatalysed and base catalysed pathways. Values have been determined for the pK(_a) in DMSO of several ammonium ions derived from amines which have previously been widely used as nucleophiles in nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions; values are also given for four polynitrodiphenylamines used as indicators. Second order rate constants (K(_s)) are presented for the reaction of substituted phenyl 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl ethers with a series of phenolate ions having pK(_a) values both higher and lower than that of the respective leaving groups in aqueous solution. The rate constants for the reverse reaction (k(_-s)) have also been measured. The Brømsted diagram formed when plotting log k(_s) versus pK(_a) shows a change in slope when ΔpK(_a) = 0 (ΔpK(_a) being the difference in pK(_a) values of the leaving group and nucleophile). This is consistent with a two step process involving a discrete σ-adduct intermediate. From the measured β values effective charges have been determined and the overall effective charge map constructed. Kinetic studies have been made for the reactions of substituted phenyl 2,4,6- trinitrophenyl ethers with substituted phenolate ions in 74% DMSO-water (v/v). Two reactions are observed. The evidence suggests that the more rapid involves formation of a 1,1 σ-adduct between the substrate and the phenolate ions. The slower reaction is attributed to hydroxide attack at the 3-position of the substrate.
|Item Type:||Thesis (Doctoral)|
|Award:||Doctor of Philosophy|
|Copyright:||Copyright of this thesis is held by the author|
|Deposited On:||09 Oct 2012 11:44|