Flynn, Colin George (1999) The decline and end of the lead mining industry in the northern Pennines 1865 - 1914: a socio-economic comparison between Wensleydale, Swaledale and Teesdale. Masters thesis, Durham University.
In 1865, the United Kingdom began importing more lead metal than it exported and by 1885 the domestic lead mining industry had halved. This industry had been in the vanguard of the Industrial Revolution but was also at the forefront of industrial decline. Lead was cheaper as a foreign import, with the supply easily outstripped the rising demand, forcing the price of lead to fall and contributing to the fall of the industry. This thesis examines and contrasts the contributing factors that caused the decline and end of the industry in the three valleys and the effects this had on the local community. The lead mines in Wensleydale and Swaledale had already exhausted the lead deposits. The mines in Wensleydale closed down but Swaledale was under the control of a local landowner and mining company entrepreneur, Sir George Denys, who wasted money on ventures. Lead mining dominated Swaledale and the fall of the industry decimated the valley causing a large drop in population. Wensleydale had an agricultural economic base, with smaller industries providing employment, so the end of the mining industry had less effect. Teesdale was also dominated by lead mining. The main employer was the London (Quaker) Lead Company. There were still mineral resources to be exploited and the company made efforts to improve efficiency before finally being liquidated in 1905. The company invested in mining and improvements, trained its staff, provided career opportunities and had a social policy for the well being of the community, all contrasting strongly with Swaledale. In 1865, there was no alternative employment to lead mining but, when the company folded, other minerals were being extracted, quarrying and the building of reservoirs provided other sources of employment in the locality, so there was less effect than in Swaledale.
|Item Type:||Thesis (Masters)|
|Award:||Master of Arts|
|Copyright:||Copyright of this thesis is held by the author|
|Deposited On:||13 Sep 2012 15:48|