Zheng, Yun (2004) Computational Aerodynamics on unstructed meshes. Doctoral thesis, Durham University.
New 2D and 3D unstructured-grid based flow solvers have been developed for simulating steady compressible flows for aerodynamic applications. The codes employ the full compressible Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. The Spalart-Al Imaras one equation turbulence model is used to model turbulence effects of flows. The spatial discretisation has been obtained using a cell-centred finite volume scheme on unstructured-grids, consisting of triangles in 2D and of tetrahedral and prismatic elements in 3D. The temporal discretisation has been obtained with an explicit multistage Runge-Kutta scheme. An "inflation" mesh generation technique is introduced to effectively reduce the difficulty in generating highly stretched 2D/3D viscous grids in regions near solid surfaces. The explicit flow method is accelerated by the use of a multigrid method with consideration of the high grid aspect ratio in viscous flow simulations. A solution mesh adaptation technique is incorporated to improve the overall accuracy of the 2D inviscid and viscous flow solutions. The 3D flow solvers are parallelised in a MIMD fashion aimed at a PC cluster system to reduce the computing time for aerodynamic applications. The numerical methods are first applied to several 2D inviscid flow cases, including subsonic flow in a bump channel, transonic flow around a NACA0012 airfoil and transonic flow around the RAE 2822 airfoil to validate the numerical algorithms. The rest of the 2D case studies concentrate on viscous flow simulations including laminar/turbulent flow over a flat plate, transonic turbulent flow over the RAE 2822 airfoil, and low speed turbulent flows in a turbine cascade with massive separations. The results are compared to experimental data to assess the accuracy of the method. The over resolved problem with mesh adaptation on viscous flow simulations is addressed with a two phase mesh reconstruction procedure. The solution convergence rate with the aspect ratio adaptive multigrid method and the direct connectivity based multigrid is assessed in several viscous turbulent flow simulations. Several 3D test cases are presented to validate the numerical algorithms for solving Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. Inviscid flow around the M6 wing airfoil is simulated on the tetrahedron based 3D flow solver with an upwind scheme and spatial second order finite volume method. The efficiency of the multigrid for inviscid flow simulations is examined. The efficiency of the parallelised 3D flow solver and the PC cluster system is assessed with simulations of the same case with different partitioning schemes. The present parallelised 3D flow solvers on the PC cluster system show satisfactory parallel computing performance. Turbulent flows over a flat plate are simulated with the tetrahedron based and prismatic based flow solver to validate the viscous term treatment. Next, simulation of turbulent flow over the M6 wing is carried out with the parallelised 3D flow solvers to demonstrate the overall accuracy of the algorithms and the efficiency of the multigrid method. The results show very good agreement with experimental data. A highly stretched and well-formed computational grid near the solid wall and wake regions is generated with the "inflation" method. The aspect ratio adaptive multigrid displayed a good acceleration rate. Finally, low speed flow around the NREL Phase 11 Wind turbine is simulated and the results are compared to the experimental data.
|Item Type:||Thesis (Doctoral)|
|Award:||Doctor of Philosophy|
|Copyright:||Copyright of this thesis is held by the author|
|Deposited On:||09 Sep 2011 09:55|