White, James C. (2009) Development and application of the phase-screen seismic modelling code. Doctoral thesis, Durham University.
As a consequence of the aims of this project, this thesis is divided into two distinct sections. Initially, the computationally efficient phase-screen forward modelling technique is extended to allow investigation of non-normal ray paths. The code is developed to accommodate all diffracted and converted phases up to critical angle, building on a geometrical construction method previously developed with a narrow-angle approximation. The new approach relies upon pre-scanning the model space to assess the complexity of each screen. The propagating wavefields are then divided as a function of horizontal wavenumber, and each subset is transformed to the spatial domain separately, carrying with it angular information. This allows both locally accurate 3D phase corrections and Zoeppritz reflection and transmission coefficients to be applied. The phase-screen code is further developed to handle simple anisotropic media. During phase-screen modelling, propagation is undertaken in the wavenumber domain where exact expressions for anisotropic phase velocities are incorporated. Extensive testing of the enhanced phase-screen technique includes simple analytical models to justify the inclusion of multiple energy alongside synthetic examples from models commonly used to test numerical modelling techniques. Additionally the code is tested with real models from a producing field in a marine sedimentary location where an exhaustive range of geophysical techniques were used to constrain the VTI parameters. Secondly within this thesis, the narrow angle version of the phase-screen method is used to generate a comprehensive pre-stack seismic reflection dataset for our industrial partners. Current exploration within the European oil and gas community is heavily focused on regions where the targets for production are positioned beneath plateau basalts oh the north west European margin. These environments produce a complex seismic response due to the scattering generated by the internal composition of the basalt flows. This study generates a large subsurface volume, derived from geological mapping projects in the Hold-with-Hope region of north east Greenland, and synthetically acquires a realistic 3-D reflection study across it. The basalt is uniquely generated as a single random volume with distinct correlation lengths in each orthogonal direction and a novel approach to determine seismic attenuation through basalts is developed. Initial results from this data set are presented after careful optimisation of the modelling code and parameters.
|Item Type:||Thesis (Doctoral)|
|Award:||Doctor of Philosophy|
|Copyright:||Copyright of this thesis is held by the author|
|Deposited On:||08 Sep 2011 18:23|