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Durham e-Theses
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Conceptual Framework for Designing Virtual Field Trip Games

ALSAQQAF, AMANI,ZAINALABDEEN,M (2023) Conceptual Framework for Designing Virtual Field Trip Games. Doctoral thesis, Durham University.



This thesis aimed to provide designing models to explore an alternative solution for a field trip when it becomes impossible for several reasons such as the limitation of cost and time. Virtual field trip games are relatively new means to create virtual field trips in game environments through adding game aspects to learning aspects to enhance the learning experience. The simple combining of game and learning aspects will not guarantee the desired effect of virtual field trips. Theoretical and logical connections should be established to form interweave between both aspects.
This thesis proposes a designing framework by establishing three links between game design aspects and learning aspects. The three links are constructed by modelling: the experiential learning theory (ELT), the gameplay, and the game world. ELT modelling quantifies the theory into the internal economy mechanic and balances the levels of game task difficulty with the player’s ability through game machinations, game modelling links the learning process to gameplay, and world modelling connects field environment to game environment. The internal economy mechanic and its components (resources, internal mechanic, feedback loop), formulating equations to define generic player’s interactions and identify indicators to capture evidence of achievements via a mathematical (evaluation) model. The game modelling includes skill models to design two important high-order skills (decision-making and teamwork) and connects them to the evaluation model. The game world is modelled through defining its variables and relationships’ rules to connect both environments (game and field) expanding the evaluation model. The framework is supported by essential learning theories (ELT, task-based learning, some aspects of social learning) and pedagogical aspects (assessment, feedback, field-based structure, high-order skills) and connected to the key game elements (interaction, multimodal presentation, control of choice…etc) of field-based learning along with suitable game mechanics.
The two research studies that were conducted as part of this thesis found that the designing framework is useful, usable, and provides connections between learning and game aspects and the designed VFTG based on the framework improved learning performance along with providing motivation and presence. This suggests the effectiveness of the framework.

Item Type:Thesis (Doctoral)
Award:Doctor of Philosophy
Keywords:game design; game machinations;Virtual Field Trip Games
Faculty and Department:Faculty of Science > Computer Science, Department of
Thesis Date:2023
Copyright:Copyright of this thesis is held by the author
Deposited On:22 Mar 2023 10:11

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